What Types of Soil are There in Russia?


Given the size of the country, there exists a large variety of soil types on its territory. But most often, the following eight types can be found here:

  1. 1. Arctic soils;
  2. 2. Gley-tundra soils;
  3. 3. Black soils;
  4. 4. Chestnut soils;
  5. 5. Podzolic soils;
  6. 6. Grey forest soils;
  7. 7. Grey-brown and brown soils;
  8. 8. Sod-podzolic soil.

They differ in composition and location. And various types are formed under the influence of certain climatic conditions.

Black soil is mainly used in agricultural industry and it is worth discussing this type in more detail. But other types of soils have their own characteristics as well:

  • Arctic soils appeared in the process of permafrost melting (their fertile layer does not exceed a couple of centimeters);
  • Gley-tundra soils contain minimal amount of humus and their acidity is above average (they are located south of the Arctic soils);
  • Chestnut soils are more suitable for steppes or semi-deserts, and their fertile layer is 4.5% (which is the average fertility);
  • Humus in podzolic soils constitutes not more than four percent. Such soils are also characterized by increased acidity;
  • In gray forest soils, humus constitutes up to 8%. Such soils are located in the continental climate, where there are lots of deciduous trees;
  • The fertile layer of brown forest lands reaches 30 centimeters (they are formed in a temperate climate).

We will find a land plot for you with a specific type of soil in a suitable climate zone. Our lawyers will prepare documents required for the land plot and help to register it.


What you Need to Know about the Russian Black Soils?

Black soil is mostly located in the steppes. In terms of fertility, it is much better than the other varieties of soil. The main characteristic feature of such land is an impressive layer of humus reaching 50-80 centimeters. In some places, the size of the layer is even bigger, up to 1.5 meters (the basin of the Kuban River).

But most of the black soil in the country is plowed. Such lands are concentrated in the main agricultural areas of Russia (southern and central regions). Also, these lands are located near the borders with Kazakhstan and Ukraine. The depletion of useful substances is minimal here, which is largely influenced by the climate and the flat terrain.

Various subtypes of black soil contain different amount of humus. The chemical composition of these soils is also different.

  • In the soils with large amount of humus, the organic matters and nutrients reach 9-10%;
  • Medium-humic and low-humic land plots contain from 4 to 5% of this useful layer;
  • And in the soils with low level of humus, its amount barely reaches four percent.

The black soil is also divided according to the thickness of the layer. Land plots with a fertile layer ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 meters are considered to be super-powerful. Soils with the layer ranging from 0.7 to 1.2 meters are considered quite powerful. And the areas where the fertile land reaches 25-70 cm are considered to have middle and low power.

Black soil is formed in different climatic conditions. Southern and ordinary types of soil are usually found in steppes, where grass dies and grows again annually. Podzolic soil was created based on the foliage of grassy forests. Typical soils are formed in forest-steppes. Any type ensures high yields of agricultural crops and they are scattered throughout the country.